About the city of Saquarema

Origin of the Municipality of Saquarema

In 1530, D. João III, king of Portugal, recognizing that the system of “excursions” to guard the coast of Brazil demanded great sacrifices and did not present satisfactory results, due to the lack of points where he could dock with the boats to provide of supplies and men, he decided to found a colony on the banks of the River Plate. To this end, it organized a fleet with two ships, a galleon and two caravels and a crew of approximately 400 people and commanded by Martim Afonso de Souza, with extraordinary powers granted by D. João III through a royal letter dated 20 November 1530. Among these powers, the most important was that of taking possession and placing landmarks throughout the territory up to the demarcated line.

Leaving Lisbon on December 3, 1530, he arrived at Baia de Todos os Santos on March 13, 1531, after having split up. Part of the fleet headed north. On the 17th of the same month, Martim Afonso de Souza restarted the trip going south. After skirting Cabo Frio, he docked in front of Morro de Saquarema (hill of the Church of Nossa Srª de Nazareth), in the place where today is the construction of Barra Franca. Some crew members disembarked and went in contact with a large tribe of Indians who obeyed the orders of the chief “SAPUGUAÇU”. These Indians lived in huts made of thatch or board with a door at each end and with no partition inside. The most common utensils were: “YNI” – Sleeping net; “URUPEMA” – Sieve; “LYMA” – Spindle; “URU” – Small basket with a lid; “YGAÇABA” – Hoist full of water; “CAMUTY” or “CAMUCIN” – Small mouth pot; “YUNDUÁ” – Pilão; “PYÇA” or “PUÇA” – Fishing net; “URUCU” or “JITY” – Fishing basket; “PINDAYABA” – Caniço; “YAPARA” and “UYBA” – Bow and arrow; “YAGARAS” – Canoes made from a single tree trunk; The Tamoios were great canoeists. They paddled to their feet with a perfect compass, with which the Europeans were amazed. Fish were roasted over coals, or on a wooden railing, which was called “MOKAEM” (read moquem). The roast wrapped in leaves was called “POKEKA”, today called moqueca. The meat, the fish pilado and mixed with flour, gave the name “PAÇOKA”. Their favorite drink was made from cashew juice that they called “CAIUM”. They had always kept cassava flour in the hut – “CARIMÔ and used it to make a curled cake called “UBEIJU”, where the name of the bejú comes from. They liked the dance called “POROCE” and used ornaments made of feathers from herons or macaws that were the helmet called “ACANGATARA” and a kind of mantle called “AÇAYABA”. They played instruments that were the horn called “MAMBY”, the guarará called “Ymbia” and drums. For centuries these indigenous people dominated the coastal part where today the headquarters of the municipality of Saquarema is located and dubbed the lagoon “SOCÓ-REMA” which means flocks of socós (wading bird abundant in the lagoon at that time) and with the evolution of language passed to be called SAQUAREMA. the guarará called “Ymbia” and drums. For centuries these indigenous people dominated the coastal part where today the headquarters of the municipality of Saquarema is located and dubbed the lagoon “SOCÓ-REMA” which means flocks of socós (wading bird abundant in the lagoon at that time) and with the evolution of language passed to be called SAQUAREMA. the guarará called “Ymbia” and drums. For centuries these indigenous people dominated the coastal part where today the headquarters of the municipality of Saquarema is located and dubbed the lagoon “SOCÓ-REMA” which means flocks of socós (wading bird abundant in the lagoon at that time) and with the evolution of language passed to be called SAQUAREMA.

The Tamoios were always allies of the French and for that reason they were exterminated by the then governor of Rio de Janeiro, Antonio Salêma. Salêma brought together people from Rio de Janeiro and some from Espírito Santo. Captain Gerônimo Leite came from São Vicente with many Portuguese and Christian Indians. The forces totaled 400 Portuguese and 700 Indians and the expedition left on August 4, 1575. They soon arrived in a village where the Tamoios had fortified. Salêma and his people surrounded this village, in a place now known as the “MARANGUÁ” field, waging cruel battles across the captaincy. The siege lasted for several days, and then according to the narrated by Father Luiz da Fonseca: “The Tamoios seeing themselves lost took the heroic resolution to make a massive assortment. Then he reigned in the enemy camp that disturbed Salêma. A Jesuit, Father Baltazar Álvares offered to investigate what it was, and on September 21, 1575, he went to the Tamoio field. This Jesuit with tricks, lies and flattering promises, got an interview with Salêma with the chief of the tamoios. The Indian chief, confident in the priest’s word, gave in, and in fact, the next day, quite solemnly, the Indian chief introduced himself to the white chief. Salêma, giving his military word of honor that would leave them alone, demanded the delivery of three Frenchmen who were among the Indians, who were hanged on the beach. Overcoming this obstacle, Salêma continued his march along the beach to Arraial do Cabo, where he practiced the most cruel blow ”. flattering lies and promises, he got an interview with Salêma from the head of the tamoios. The Indian chief, confident in the priest’s word, gave in, and in fact, the next day, quite solemnly, the Indian chief introduced himself to the white chief. Salêma, giving his military word of honor that would leave them alone, demanded the delivery of three Frenchmen who were among the Indians, who were hanged on the beach. Overcoming this obstacle, Salêma continued his march along the beach to Arraial do Cabo, where he practiced the most cruel blow ”. flattering lies and promises, he got an interview with Salêma from the head of the tamoios. The Indian chief, confident in the priest’s word, gave in, and in fact, the next day, quite solemnly, the Indian chief introduced himself to the white chief. Salêma, giving his military word of honor that would leave them alone, demanded the delivery of three Frenchmen who were among the Indians, who were hanged on the beach. Overcoming this obstacle, Salêma continued his march along the beach to Arraial do Cabo, where he practiced the most cruel blow ”. for that he demanded the delivery of three Frenchmen who were among the Indians, who were hanged on the beach. Overcoming this obstacle, Salêma continued his march along the beach to Arraial do Cabo, where he practiced the most cruel blow ”. for that he demanded the delivery of three Frenchmen who were among the Indians, who were hanged on the beach. Overcoming this obstacle, Salêma continued his march along the beach to Arraial do Cabo, where he practiced the most cruel blow ”.

King D. João III, looking for a less expensive solution to the problem of colonization in Brazil, decided to divide the territory into hereditary captaincies. It was due to the realization of this real desire, that the lands of the current municipality of Saquarema, belonged to Martim Afonso de Souza, as they were within the limits set for the Captaincy of São Vicente donated to him. Given the extent of the Capitania’s territory, many years passed before the lands of Saquarema received the benefits of civilization.

It was only in 1594 that the priests of the Order of Carmo, interested in them, pleaded and obtained, on October 5 of that year, the donation of some sesmarias located in the region. In the place today called Carmo, close to Ipitangas, the religious began to arrive shortly, the construction of a convent that they called Santo Alberto and of which at present, there is only, as a souvenir, the image of their patron, venerated in the exhibition of old images in one of the rooms of the Bishop’s palace in Niterói. After the arrival of the Carmelites, other sesmarias were granted in the vicinity of their own, which motivated the creation of several farms in the lands of Saquarema.

https://www.saquarema.rj.gov.br/historia/#